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May 7 and the ice is gone – from most lakes. There’s still ice on the big, deep lake trout lakes and one can still see the odd patch of snow/ice in the bush. Last night it was -80 C, so it’s not as if the blossoms are in bloom. Fact is the pussy willows have only just begun to emerge. No green sheen in the forest yet.

At least the pond in front of the house has been ice-free for several days, albeit most mornings there is a bit of ice along the edges. But that quickly melts off and is long gone by the afternoon.

When there was a mix of open water and ice on the pond, the ducks were in active courtship. The hooded mergansers in particular were really going at it. Lots of fighting and displaying and ‘gronking’, which is the sound of their mating call.

There were also wood ducks, green-winged teal, ringnecks, common mergansers and of course mallards. Very early, a pair of Canada geese built their nest on the beaver house and we expect the goslings will be hatching any day now.

I put up a blind to photograph from and for a few days there was a lot of action for me to try and capture. However, things have slowed down considerably and lately it’s mostly just a group of three drake mallards that come by the blind. Maybe things will pick up once the nights get a bit warmer and things start to green up.

In addition to the waterfowl, there’s been a steady stream of other migrants. Of special note was a pair of willets (first I’ve ever seen) and several rusty blackbirds. And the tree swallows are back – all three nest boxes look to be claimed.

Some deer did make it through the winter. In addition to the three that were almost daily visitors for months, there have been of late a couple of others coming to nibble at greenery on the lawn. Yesterday we noticed a large paw print of a bear on the road only a couple of hundred meters from the house. Maybe it’s the big brown one I saw last spring.

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Also yesterday, in the morning, we saw from the house a very fluffy, orangy red fox catching some rays. A couple of weeks ago, just when the ice was starting to melt, a coyote – the first we’ve seen on our property –showed up one day, but we haven’t seen it since. Best of all, I haven’t seen a timber wolf for several weeks.

There seems to be good numbers of ruffed grouse as we hear many drumming, not just on our property but pretty much wherever we have been. Neva seems to find one or two to flush on her daily walk, which keeps her happy. I like grouse a lot, so seeing and hearing grouse every day is a good thing.

Lil and I haven’t seen a single moose track anywhere we’ve been. Granted, we’ve not been travelling far and wide, but in years gone by it was common to see moose tracks on our property and here and there on the roads near town. Those days are long gone.

The MNRF released its moose tag quota allocations for the 2019 hunt and, unbelievably, is planning on issuing more cow tags than bull tags across the province as a whole. This despite the fact moose numbers continue to decline and in most WMUs, moose populations are well below their targets. In the WMU Lil and I hunt (06), only 1 tag was issued – for a cow. It seems to me this is complete lunacy, but it’s also what I’ve come to expect from an outfit where I worked for more than 30 years. I’m just glad I don’t work there any more – it’s hard enough admitting it’s where I had a career. I just shake my head.

A couple of postings back (https://wildlifeperspectives.wordpress.com/2019/01/28/its-piling-up/), I wrote that the snow was beginning to pile up. After that post, it really piled up!

In Kenora, February has so far been the snowiest month of the 2018-19 winter, with a whopping 70.8 cm of the white stuff hitting the ground. Kenora’s normal snowfall for February is 18.6 cm, which means the snowfall for the month was 381% higher than normal.

Obviously, that’s unusual. Up until the end of January, it looked like it was going to be a relatively good winter for the local deer herd, with only about a 30% chance the winter would wind-up being classified as ‘severe’ (based on winter severity indices predictions used by provincial deer managers).

Of course, the only way it could become ‘severe’, was if it snowed a lot and the snow stayed on the ground. Well it did, and so far it has. If you had bet on the odds, you’d have lost.

The last day Kenora had that was above the freezing mark was January 4, when the temperature climbed to a miserly high of 10 C. No melting at all after that and none predicted until March 11, when the temperature is predicted to hit a high of zero.

Right now, the snow depth around my house in poplar stands (which is the kind of forest where snow stations are located to assess winter severity) is 60 cm or more; 50 cm is the threshold that most agree puts deer are in trouble. Fifty cm is about the height of a deer leg, which means more than 50 cm and deer are plowing snow with their chest, which is what I’ve been seeing.

There’s also a rule of thumb that says if you have 50 cm on the ground for 50 days, a lot of deer will perish and does that do survive, will have many stillborn fawns.

How long snow cover lingers will be critical for the deer. The weather forecasters are predicting a big change in weather patterns sometime after the middle of March – much milder temperatures – but if it keeps snowing, and it doesn’t have to snow a lot, there could easily still be snow on the ground into late April.

The deer I see around our house are staying under conifer cover when they can because the snow is not near as deep there. But, there’s not much food under the conifers, either.

In the City of Kenora, the deer are running around on the railway, cleared streets and sidewalks, looking for food, especially handouts. They’ve pretty much eaten all the available browse and what’s left is mostly inaccessible because of the deep snow. It’s illegal to feed deer within city limits – according to the bylaws – but lots of people are ignoring those laws and there is next to nothing being done by way of enforcement. I guess that’s good for the deer; if it weren’t for handouts, the city deer would more than likely be starving.

Deer are adaptable animals. Interestingly, I think these urban deer – a relatively new phenomenon in northwestern Ontario (although Sioux Narrows, about 100 km south of Kenora, has had an ‘urban’ deer population for many decades), will probably be what lets the deer herd recover in future years – at a much faster rate than otherwise would be expected. That’s if the near future sees a series of low-snow winters.

History would suggest there will be those less severe, low snow winters and that deer herds will recover.

On the other hand, deer were mostly absent from northwestern Ontario in the 1800’s. Since there’s no predicting the future – although everyone likes to do that – all we can really do is wait and see how the future actually unfolds.

One thing I can predict with near certainty is that the 2019 deer hunting season in the Kenora area will be rather unspectacular, at best.

I remain hopeful it won’t be a complete washout.

It’s finally summer and it actually feels like it. I even managed to catch a few rays and start a tan for the first time in a few years.

It was a long, long winter. Snow arrived in late October and didn’t melt until the end of April. But it has finally warmed up nicely and best of all, there’s been just enough rain to keep the veg growing well while not giving the mosquitoes a leg up. Even deer flies are tolerable this year – I suspect the great hatch of dragonflies is helping on that front. Wood ticks were terrible, though. When doing our elk monitoring (critter cams) I had to literally brush of hundreds at times. Sometimes there were also deer ticks in the mix, which potentially carry Lyme disease.  Can’t stand ticks . . .

From a wildlife perspective, it’s been an interesting past several weeks. For the first time, there was a yellow-headed blackbird in the yard. It only stayed for an hour or so; then was gone. There’s a black-billed cuckoo that makes the rounds around the pond almost every morning – we hear it, but haven’t seen it. A pair of pied-bill grebes nested on the pond – also a first – and hatched out young. Yesterday there were five of them, down one, I think. A hooded merganser showed up with nine young followed by a wood duck with ten ducklings. Still waiting to see whether there’s a hatch of mallards and green-winged teal.

There are at least a few ruffed grouse hens with broods along the road with young (so far, they have not been run over by vehicles, but I fear it’s only a matter of time) and there was a woodcock that was also acting broody and also on the road. The tree swallows are busy feeding their young in the boxes we put up and an eastern phoebe has young in her nest under the eaves of our old cabin. Lots of other birds around, too.

The painted turtles have been laying eggs in front of the house, but the skunks come at night and have been digging up the nests; we hope some will survive.

The pair of Canada geese that nested on the beaver house hatched out five but tragedy struck – not sure exactly what happened – suffice to say all five goslings perished.  After a couple of days, the adults left. So for the second year in a row, the geese are gone.

I have seen one new-born fawn whitetail. Lots of bears in the neighborhood, including some big ones; and there are still wolves around.  Not sure what happened to the beavers. Three survived the winter, but for the last couple of weeks we have only been seeing one, and only sporadically. Maybe the wolves/bears got the other two.

Saw a porcupine one day while coming home from work (a rarity in these parts). Don’t need or want porcupines nearby. Neva, our dog, has not learned to keep away from them.

When the ice was melting, a very pregnant otter was lolling about for a couple of days. Since then, we’ve only seen her once. Not sure where she is . .  .

The pond is teeming with minnows and hordes of tiny tadpoles are rapidly forming into frogs (most of the ones I’ve seen appear to be wood frogs). The cacophony each evening of singing frogs has been deafening.

Finally, it looks like it might be a good year for at least some of the wild berries. Choke cherries, pin cherries, service (Saskatoon) berries and blueberries are some that are right now looking promising. Yum.

So, I’m ready for the heat to continue and hoping the lazy, hazy days of summer will linger for several weeks. Much, much better than the dreary days of winter where the only life seen is often, at best, a few birds at the feeder.

Yep, time to enjoy country living and not dwell too much on the shenanigans being foisted on us daily by politicians and masses of do-gooders (often the same people).

And do a bit of fishing, which, by the way, has been mostly pretty good.

Different species avoid bad weather – winter – in different ways.

It’s easy to see why the global warming issue is so big. It’s all about the weather, and every last one of us is affected by the weather.  Despite hopes, beliefs and hard effort to control the weather, the best way to minimize harm that might come to you because of bad weather is to use protection: a rain coat as opposed to a rain dance.

Our obsession with the weather goes back a long way; for example, there is a lot of talk of weather – and controlling it – in the Bible. While I haven’t done an extensive check, I’m sure weather plays a big part in all religions and cultures. Simply put, we are weather dependents and, using again a quote from a country song, “It’s always been that way.”

In Canada, winter weather is usually the worst.  The majority of birds in this country migrate south, en-masse, to avoid winter weather. Some animals also move to areas with better winter conditions, but many others have evolved to find a good spot to lie down and go to sleep for the winter. They only wake up when the weather improves. The rest have to face winter weather head-on and find a way to cope with the cold and snow and the storms.  It’s a tough go to try and survive a winter when, for months on end, the food supply never increases, only dwindles; temperatures are constantly below freezing and everything is covered with snow.

Because of the significant impacts winter weather has on wildlife, wildlifers use a variety of techniques, including indices, to assess the impact of winter on particular types of wildlife. In states and provinces where winters regularly decimate white-tailed deer populations, winter severity indexes were developed that generate numbers that are used to categorize the severity of a winter and provide estimates as to the number of deer that likely perished over-winter. The categories are generally “Mild, Moderate and Severe”; the higher the number, the more severe the winter.

The winter that just passed in the area where I live, was long, windy, cold and snowy.  The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, which has as one of its responsibilities the management of deer, categorized the winter as “Severe” in the district where I live. There’s no doubt it was a hard winter on the local herds of white-tailed deer.

Still, some deer survived. I’ve seen a few around.

A few years ago, deer were common, sometimes abundant, hundreds of kilometers north of where they’re common today. But a series of hard winters, and some other factors, pretty much rubbed them out. I recently authored a paper with a colleague that showed how deer (and moose) populations have fluctuated in this area over the past many decades; we concluded that landscape level perturbations (e.g., fire) are the main reasons these populations fluctuate wildly over time; and of course, much of these perturbations and related events are weather related. You can read the paper here: http://alcesjournal.org/index.php/alces/article/view/227

Animals cope with the elements by living in habitats that provide them with the essentials of life, namely food and cover. If you are in the business of wildlife management in North America, part of the job is likely addressing habitat management issues. There’s still a strong belief by biologists that habitat is often, if not usually, the key factor affecting the survival of a species. If habitat is suitable, and there’s enough of it, most animal populations should do okay. Habitat isn’t easy to describe, and it’s used differently by different animals.

A feature of good habitat is the ability to provide relief from the weather. Deer often congregate in specific areas, usually called a ‘yard’, where both food and cover are available.

Unfortunately, a lot of the time, effort and money that could be spent on trying to do a good job of wildlife habitat management is, I think, being spent on trying to manage the weather. It’s a real flip-flop, and not without consequences. Spending billions on trying to manage the weather (e.g., climate change) is increasingly being viewed with much scepticism. Some say it’s environmentalism. I think it’s mostly virtue signaling – spending lots of money being ‘green’, without much in the way of actual, tangible results.

Personally, I can think better ways to spend money on conservation of wildlife than squandering millions (billions?) on windmills that are notorious bird and bat killers and don’t really make a dent in reducing CO2 emissions.

However, priorities do differ amongst jurisdictions and on-the-ground habitat management programs do exist in some places. In some – the state of Michigan comes to mind – they can be surprisingly robust. Elsewhere they may be close to non-existent. If sound habitat management programs aren’t in place and funded in the area where you live, there’s a good chance many species of wildlife near you are floundering.

Habitat management is not the be-all and end all when it comes to looking after wildlife, but there’s little doubt good habitat, and habitat management policies, is a whole lot better than poor habitat and a focus on reducing our ‘carbon footprint ’.

I’ll be addressing habitat issues a bit more thoroughly in future postings.

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Spring is in the air. Yesterday was a very nice, late winter’s day (actually, the 1st day of spring), although by evening the wind was howling, the temperature was plummeting and snowflakes were being blown around. But earlier, it had been a nice day.

It’s been a weird winter. For the first time since I’ve lived here – over 35 years – most of the winter saw the snow with a hard crust, the kind you can walk on. In fact, I’ve looked at snow records for this area that go back to 1955 and see no indication of a winter with similar snow conditions.

I don’t know how that’s going to play out for the local wildlife, but I’m inclined to think not too badly. During our daily walks with our dogs, we are regularly seeing snowshoe hares, ruffed grouse and deer. On the other hand, there aren’t near as many hares as there were earlier, a testament I’m sure to the hunting success of the lynx, marten and fox, the tracks of which we regularly encounter, but seldom see.

And while there remains a small herd of about 7 deer on our property, we note they are regularly harassed by wolves. We haven’t seen any wolves of late, but every few days their tracks show us they are still nearby. Neighbors have told us the wolves have killed at least a few deer in the past weeks near them. It’s a concern that in our drives away from town, we see few – very few – deer tracks. No signs of moose at all.

With so little big game, it’s hard to see that wolves didn’t suffer. Wolves can’t thrive on a diet of mice and hares. Research has shown that each wolf needs about one adult deer every 20 days over the course of winter just to survive. But wolves are, if anything, survivalists. I admit I’m amazed there are as many wolves as there are. When the deer population crashed four winters ago, I would have thought the wolf population would have followed suit no more than a year or two later.  Still, it’s only a matter of time.

Despite the recent melting, there’s still a covering of snow on the ground and it’s still dense enough to support one’s weight. Like I said, yesterday was nice; it was sunny for most of the day and the temperature got to about +80 C.  Last night it dipped to -150 C and isn’t supposed to get above the melting point again for another couple of days.  There’s a lot of ice on the local lakes – more than two feet on the lake where Lil and I went fishing yesterday, so ice-free days are still off a bit (yes, we did catch some fish. Tasty speckled trout, as a matter of fact).

On a gloomy note, I received a report last week on the state of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in North America, the prion, brain-wasting disease now found across wide swaths of North America that’s killing off white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and even moose. CWD continues to spread and once established in an area, seems to be impossible to eliminate. Once an animal is infected, death always follows. Some of the models being used to predict the outcome of this plague suggest that local, perhaps widespread extinctions are possible, if not probable.

What a mess.

Oh well, it’s spring! No time to get depressed. Plenty of time for that later.

The hunting season, for white-tailed deer and grouse, in my area ended ½ hr after sunset yesterday (correction:grouse season is still open; it now closes at the end of December. But I have never hunted past Dec 15, which is when the season used to close.)

It was a rather uneventful day. I didn’t go hunting and hadn’t been for several days. For the second straight year I didn’t harvest a deer. I did have opportunities; more than last year. I saw at least 4 different bucks. Yearling bucks were the youngest and smallest; the other bucks were at least 2 ½ years old and the largest one might have been 3 ½.

I took a number of ruffed grouse and a few spruce grouse this autumn (plus some pheasants, sharp-tailed grouse and Hungarian partridge in Alberta). I hunted with my dog Neva here and in Alberta, and a bit with Lil and our other dog, Dory (near home). Dory’s front legs have never worked properly so she’s had that handicap all her life. But Neva seems to have brought her joy and Dory now enjoys being able to hunt with us, even if it’s only for a very short time during an outing.

The moose hunt also ended, but my moose hunting this year was restricted to the week I flew into the wilds of Manitoba; zippo on that hunt. I did have a tag for moose hunting in Ontario, but I wasn’t interested in hunting a calf because I don’t believe in calf hunting (not like it’s being done in Ontario); and, I didn’t have an adult tag on my moose license – nor did any of my normal hunting buddies.

The highlight of my hunting season was in early September. Saw a magnificent bull elk on a misty morning. There is no licenced hunt for elk in Northwestern Ontario, but someday there might be. Elk were re-introduced in this area in 2000 and although there have been some setbacks, there are a few herds around that seem to be doing OK. There’s been some encouraging reports of late, so ‘fingers crossed’.

The last few days of the hunting season have been cold and windy; into the minus twenties in Celsius – ‘silly arses’ – degrees. Too cold for me to want to go hunting.

There were not a lot of deer around anyway; most days when I went hunting I didn’t see a single deer. But tracks and dropping and rubs and scrapes showed there were deer scattered about and twice we saw deer along the highway driving to our hunt spot, or coming home after the hunt was done.

I saw almost as much wolf sign as deer sign. Everywhere I went there were fresh wolf tracks. On a few occasions we could hear them howling, sometimes quite close by. On a hill my buddy Deryk and I have hunted for years, there was very little deer sign (none on the hill itself) but we counted at least a dozen piles of wolf crap. More than once we saw wolves.

When it gets cold and snow covers the ground, the ruffed grouse just seem to disappear. I hadn’t been shooting any lately, not just because it’s been cold, but more important, many places now convenient to hunt might be areas where trappers are working; some trap sets could easily be tripped by an inquisitive dog and that would be the end of that. We had been letting Neva hunt grouse on many of our almost daily walks on our property; I just hadn’t been trying to shoot them. I like seeing the grouse and if they stick around, we can continue to ‘hunt’ them all winter, or at least on some nice days when there a few birds out and about.

Now that deer and bird hunting is over, I think it might be time to hunt wolves and get ready to do some ice fishing.

Maybe combine the two.

And maybe dream of an elk hunt.

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As usual, it’s been a busy fall hunting season. Results have been mixed. Regardless, I’m enjoying the hunt.

I saw a nice, big bull moose with a big rack in northern Manitoba, but only the cow presented a target. We saw the moose after we had actually finished our hunt, about a kilometer down the lake from camp, after lunch when we were just starting to pack up. Jumped in the canoe but never did catch up or see the bull again; just the cow.

Licensed hunters in northern Manitoba can only harvest a bull. For the duration of the 5 days we hunted, I tried calling mornings and evenings; never had a response. There was moose sign around, mostly tracks and antler thrashed bushes, but the woods around me were quiet. It was a bit on the warm side and winds were calm; overall it seemed to me that the calling conditions were good.

There’s much synchronicity in how the rut plays out, so we may simply have been hunting during a lull. My friend Gary Gehrmann, a professional hunter, emphasizes to his guests who are planning to hunt moose, or black bear, that two weeks is the time you need to have an excellent chance of being successful. His clients are a pretty satisfied bunch.

Of course, not all of us can book two weeks for a moose hunt. Life is busy. So, bottom line, no moose this year.

Then there was the bird hunt to Alberta. Everything went well.

Around home, I’ve been grouse hunting off and on from the start of the season, which began in the middle of September. There seems to be quite a few grouse around, so I’ve had some success. Neva has really enjoyed chasing grouse around. For a couple of weeks, as many as five grouse, but usually no more than two at a time, came every evening to munch on crab apples in the tree beside the house and kitchen window. But, the grouse, with the help of the gray jays, blue jays and red squirrels, finally ate all the fruit.

Deer hunting has been tough. Seems to me, and others I’ve talked to, that there are fewer deer than last year yet more hunters (particularly non-resident, Americans). Because last winter was mild, the wildlife managers assumed deer numbers would be up and handed out a lot of extra antlerless permits to resident hunters. I don’t think they accounted for the still high wolf numbers that have continued to decimate the remaining deer. With deer numbers relatively low and wolf numbers high, I think the wolves will keep killing deer until there are very, very few, left; only then will wolf numbers collapse. Talking to some trappers, it seems that has started to happen in some areas.

Over about two weeks of deer hunting (not all day events, but several hours in a day), I’ve seen about a half dozen deer. All except one have been on our property, where I’ve spent about half my hunting time. Half of those deer are the does that we see in the yard almost every day, so they really don’t count. A few years ago, it wasn’t unusual to see more than a dozen deer during a day of serious deer hunting almost everywhere I went.

Two of the deer on our property were bucks. The first was a 9 pointer, one that Lil and I have since seen several times over the past few days. He’s been chasing does; one day he was chasing a doe past my decoy, gave up on the real deal, and went and sniffed out the decoy. Should have stuck with the live doe, although it’s likely he gave up because she wasn’t in estrus.

The 2nd buck, a 6 pointer, figured the decoy was his and quickly succumbed to the emotional roller-coaster of love. After close to two hours of courtship, including a couple of mounting attempts, I had to chase him off. I felt sorry for him. He seemed somewhat distraught. The decoy was covered in deer slobbers when I picked it up and put it away.

Yesterday, I saw my first deer hunting off property. It was an 8 point buck. An easy shot, but I like hunting and didn’t want to end it yet. The season is open (just for residents; the non-resident season ended Nov. 15) to the middle of December and the weather forecast for the next two weeks indicates reasonably good hunting conditions.

I’d like to try setting up my decoy somewhere else, but on public land, watching a decoy could be dangerous. There are still a lot of resident hunters with unfilled tags burning holes in their pockets. Obviously, the decoy is lifelike.

Even if the winter is again mild, the outlook for deer hunting in this neck of the woods doesn’t look to be particularly good for at least a few more years. Deer numbers are definitely down, there are still a lot of wolves around, hunting seasons are long and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry shows no inclination to do much of anything to aid the struggling herd. Hunting seasons with firearms are 5 weeks for non-residents, 11 weeks for residents; plus there’s another week prior to the start of the gun season for archers and muzzle loading enthusiasts (all hunters). Licences are unlimited, there are no guide requirements for non-residents and hundreds of extra tags for antlerless deer (resident hunters only) have been issued annually, a trend likely to continue. Let’s not forget a sizable, and growing, segment of the local population can hunt using Aboriginal and Treaty Rights. Finally, the wolves have more protection these days than they’ve ever seen before.

But the white-tailed deer is a resilient creature. They’re always full of surprises. Today was no exception; more on that later . . .